Dick Brannan, Part II

July 12th, 2011

Text by Bob McClurg

Photos by Bob McClurg and Courtesy of Dick Brannan and Rick Kirk

THE Man Behind Ford’s Total Performance Drag Racing Program

We bring you the conclusion of the interview with Ford Racing’s man behind the scenes and on the drag strip, Dick Brannan.

DRM: By spring of 1965 things started to get a little “funny” at Ford?

BRANNAN: In April 1965, we also started construction on an altered wheelbase 427 SOHC Mustang Funny Car named Bronco because of the way it jumped around on launch. The car was constructed to compete against the altered wheelbase Mopar Hemi cars starting to appear all over. I won top ratings and races at major events, including the prestigious Cecil County Factory Showdown held in Maryland. Ford Special Vehicles and Holman Moody in Charlotte were also involved in building Phil Bonner a special match race 427 SOHC Falcon during the summer of 1965. Although it was mostly financed by Phil, we furnished engines and parts, and the car was extremely successful.

DRM: Sounds like Ford Special Vehicles had a lot on its plate.

BRANNAN: Yes! I was also responsible for development, driving, reporting race results and working with the secretaries at Ford helping translate reports into language that could be understood by important people within the company that were not involved in the day-to-day race operations. These reports were sent out each Monday before lunch, if possible. Usually late Monday afternoon we would have a meeting and discuss what had taken place during the previous weekend, and then we would start all over again.

DRM: But you led another life outside of the office?

BRANNAN: Outside the actual office, I did a tremendous amount of development work on the 427 SOHC engine, and on its Hilborn fuel-injected version. I also developed the C-6 automatic transmission into a reliable racing component. Most development of the C-6 program was done using the white mule car, as we called it. That car had all kinds of sophisticated data recording devices installed, which practically filled up the whole interior. With today’s compact electronics you probably could fit it all into something the size of a matchbox! In warmer months most of the testing took place across from our office on the Dearborn Test Track, sometimes until dark. Most of the color photos of the cars used in most articles were taken by company photographer Joe Farkas at this location.

DRM: Yes, but it wasn’t always peaches and cream. You crashed one development car, didn’t you?

BRANNAN:  In late 1965 we altered three more 427 SOHC Mustang test cars to be used for the 1966 model year. All were equipped with the C6 automatic transmissions, one with fuel injection and two with carburetors. The first car was unlettered and principally used after being equipped with fuel injection for testing with nitromethane fuel, which we knew was coming. Tests seemed to go well; however, we found out the hard way that the Mustang’s 2+2 body shape reacted like an aircraft wing, creating lift at high speed. After turning 9.35-162.00 mph on a test run at Martin, Michigan, the drag chute failed to open properly, and the car flipped end over end at the finish line. It came down on its wheels off the track in a sandy area. Thankfully, there was no fire because it took a little time for me to get out of the car. I sustained injuries, including four compression fractures to four of my backbone vertebrae. At first I just thought that I had hit some sand on the track. After my recovery and lots of time to think, we got access to the Ford wind tunnel where an aerodynamicist named Jay Kessler spent hours with me trying to reproduce my Martin Dragway run. It was during those tests I discovered the rear tires would break loose on the top end. Considering the amount of horsepower being produced, the tests revealed there was only 12 pounds of down force on each rear wheel at the speed I’d recorded.

We started working with various spoiler configurations in the wind tunnel and found lowering the front and installing a spoiler at the rear of the deck lid not only added down force to the back tires, but it also cut drag. Further testing caused me to realize that the 108-inch wheelbase was just too short and any new models would have to be lengthened. I called Holman & Moody and said, ‘Man we have a problem.  We’re going to have to hold construction on the cars being built until I can get there.’  We decided to lengthen the wheelbase on the first car 10 inches. That car was given to Phil Bonner but was ill prepared according to Phil and never quite operated as designed. Tasca received the first car with the 12-inch stretch, which I personally drove at Irwindale Raceway prior to their taking delivery before the AHRA Winternationals.

DRM: Bob Tasca took a lot of credit for developing the long wheelbase Mustang match racer concept with his Mystery 9 Mustang. How hands-on was he?

BRANNAN: Bill Lawton, driver of the Mystery Series Tasca Mustangs, was one of the best and most reliable drivers we had on the team. Bob Tasca himself played an advisory role in almost everything we worked on or developed at Ford, and his contributions should always be remembered. Being the largest Ford Dealer in the United States at the time, he had contacts, pull and good ideas. He was also helpful selling our program to budget management. Tasca (Lawton) ran and won the AHRA and NHRA Winter races in 1965 and 1966. I won the AHRA Funny Car fuel class, beating Arnie ‘Farmer’ Beswick driving his supercharged Pontiac GTO. Since I had another short wheelbase car to keep us going along, Tasca and Gas Ronda received the first 12-inch, stretch, long wheelbase cars.

DRM: Didn’t you also run one of these long wheelbase Mustangs yourself?

BRANNAN. Once again, this gets a little confusing. I actually had two shorter wheelbase and two stretched wheelbase Mustangs competing under the Bob Banner Ford banner. However, as I became more involved in development work later in 1966, we decided we weren’t going to continue with that program because Ford didn’t sell stretched-out Mustangs and did not like that image. That’s when I started developing the 1966-67 Ford Fairlane 427 Super Stock cars. Shortly after, I turned the driving duties of my ’66 long wheelbase car over to Hubert Platt and made him a long overdue member of the Ford Drag Team.

DRM: Those 427 Fairlanes were pretty memorable.

BRANNAN:  The 427 wedge pushrod V-8 was a great engine for the Fairlanes, on the street and strip. We contracted with Bill Stroppe & Associates to build these cars, and most folks were quite successful with them. By that time Charlie Gray had moved on to handle all of NASCAR, and I was left with the drag program without the person I could always depend on so very much.

DRM: Is that when the Dick Brannan Ford connection came in?

BRANNAN: I did continue to be the one assigned to show up as a Ford dealer, which was originally part of my job description.  I ‘sponsored’ some of the cars that Ford felt needed to be kept an arm’s length away from corporate. Through Dick Brannan Ford we were able to divert some of the attention away from the eyes of insurance companies and others trying to stop performance cars from being built and sold. On the roof of my ‘sponsored’ ‘68 Torino appeared the names A.J. Foyt and Donnie Allison and popular crew chief Banjo Matthews.

DRM:  What other race products came about during your tenure with Ford?

BRANNAN:  In 1967 The Cobra Jet Mustangs were developed and their public debut was right around the corner. By 1968 some of the 428 Cobra Jet Mustangs were running away with the Super Stock class, including one driven by Al ‘Batman’ Joniec, who won Super Stock Eliminator at Pomona.  At that time I started working with Chuck Foulger, who had come into our department in late 1967. Chuck was a Southern California guy, who had worked closely with Bill Stroppe & Associates. He was a natural during the building of these cars.

DRM: When did you leave Ford?

BRANNAN: I left Ford in 1969, went to Georgia and started selling Piper airplanes. However, Bill Humphrey talked me into staying with the program as a paid consultant, and I continued with the team all the way through 1972 driving a 1970-71 Boss 429 Maverick under the Paul Harvey banner, though the car actually belonged to Ford. Later in 1972, and until Ford dropped the racing program completely, I helped develop the Boss 351 engine used in the Pro Stock Ford Pintos. [EDITOR’S NOTE: In 1972 Brannan drove the Paul Harvey Ford Pro Stock Pinto.]

I really enjoyed my time at Ford, and I’m fortunate to have played such an important role during such a glorious time.

DRM: What are some of your most memorable wins?

BRANNAN: Winning the Super Stock class at Detroit Drag way in 1962 against more than 60 other Super Stock cars. The wins and NHRA records I set in 1963 driving my 1963-1/2 427 Galaxie lightweight number 823. The 3,200-pound class win at the big AHRA Summer event at Long Beach, California, with my Bronco Mustang in 1965. Winning the Factory Showdown at Cecil County, Maryland, against all of the factory-sponsored cars, also in 1965. The AHRA Championships back to back in 1965 and 1966, and winning the [unsure of the date] Pro Stock Championship at Oldsmar, Florida, racing Arlen Vanke in the final, driving my 1971 Paul Harvey Ford-sponsored Boss 429 Maverick.

You have to remember that I worked for Ford as a development engineer and ran a team car. Our primary objective was to let our sponsored racers, including Ronda, Ritchey, Bonner, Tasca and Platt, do the winning while we developed the engines and cars to help enable them to do so. However, in those days, I set quite a few track records and won the AHRA Winternationals at Irwindale Raceway, the AHRA Summernationals at Lions, and won the NASCAR Championships during Speed Weeks down there in Daytona Beach, Florida.

DRM: We can’t help but ask this question: Whom do you regard as being one of the toughest racers you ever ran against?

BRANNAN: “Dyno Don” Nicholson was pretty tough. I raced him a number of times. Jim Thornton, driving for the Ramchargers, was also tough, but overall, I would say that that THE toughest competitor I ever raced was Ronnie Sox.

DRM: And what are you doing today?

BRANNAN: In 1972 I started my own business out at the Atlanta Peachtree Airport selling new Piper airplanes. We also had our own jet flight school where we trained pilots, which is where my ex-boss Charlie Gray got his Cessna Citation jet and Learjet Type Ratings in the late 1970s. I am Type Rated in Learjet and Hawker Jet. I also started a charter service company called Corporate Jet Aviation offering on-demand flights anywhere, anytime. Of course, like so many of my generation today, I am retired and trying to enjoy the memories.

Tags: ,

Advertisement

1,082 Responses to “Dick Brannan, Part II”

  1. Scarpe Air Max (http://sespi NULL.it/page NULL.asp) says:

    Scarpe Air Max…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  2. relevant web page (http://boardgames NULL.games1234 NULL.net/tag/tag-house-rules) says:

    relevant web page…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  3. michael kors sac pas cher (http://dental-ideas NULL.com/michael-kors-sac/) says:

    michael kors sac pas cher…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  4. ดูหนังโป๊ (http://www NULL.just4pic NULL.com) says:

    ดูหนังโป๊…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  5. click through the next website page (http://softwarefrekz NULL.blogspot NULL.com/) says:

    click through the next website page…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  6. 8 ball pool hack android (https://8ballpoolhacknow NULL.wordpress NULL.com) says:

    8 ball pool hack android…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  7. hogan scarpe donne (http://www NULL.dagoneye NULL.it/blog/scarpe-hogan/) says:

    hogan scarpe donne…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  8. contract wars hacks no survey (http://contractwarshackz NULL.wordpress NULL.com/) says:

    contract wars hacks no survey…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  9. キッズ ベビー マタニティその他 img buyma com オンラ (http://www NULL.havanacafeaz NULL.com/hermes-%E3%82%A8%E3%83%AB%E3%83%A1%E3%82%B9/%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%B0) says:

    キッズ ベビー マタニティその他 img buyma com オンラ…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  10. oakley sonnenbrille (http://www NULL.earn2advertise NULL.com/herrlich-oakley-im-schnitt-preis/besondere-oakley-m-frame-promos) says:

    oakley sonnenbrille…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  11. Cheap Nike Air Max For Women (http://www NULL.smartmonkeytv NULL.com/images/uploads/page/) says:

    Cheap Nike Air Max For Women…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  12. new balance 580 bsr (http://www NULL.marklene NULL.com/besondere-new-balance-speicher/wertvoll-new-balance-580-vertrieb) says:

    new balance 580 bsr…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  13. nike air jordan 13 (http://www NULL.chaddyner NULL.com/gut-aussehend-air-jordan-online-geschaft/schon-air-jordan-13-vertrieb) says:

    nike air jordan 13…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  14. nike air max bw damen (http://www NULL.amyljenkins NULL.com/real-nike-air-max-in-niedrig-preis/Luxus-nike-air-max-bw-geschaft) says:

    nike air max bw damen…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  15. asics gel lyte iii (http://www NULL.arivusgroup NULL.com/glanzend-asics-online/gute-Qualitat-asics-gel-hyper33-online) says:

    asics gel lyte iii…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  16. Nike Air Max Bambino (http://gruppogrottegallarate NULL.it/new/page NULL.asp) says:

    Nike Air Max Bambino…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  17. vans tnt 4 (http://www NULL.margueritejuiceplus NULL.com/grob-vans-online/luxurios-vans-tnt-speicher) says:

    vans tnt 4…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  18. vibram sohle (http://www NULL.loudmouthstyle NULL.com/tatsachlich-vibram-online-geschaft) says:

    vibram sohle…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  19. dessous coquins (http://www NULL.sexeshopsexe NULL.com) says:

    dessous coquins…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  20. vans hello kitty schuhe (http://www NULL.sudburyholidayinn NULL.com/herrlich-vans-im-schnitt-preis/elegant-vans-hello-kitty-in-rabatt) says:

    vans hello kitty schuhe…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  21. Nike Air Max 95 (http://icel NULL.it/page/max NULL.asp) says:

    Nike Air Max 95…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  22. アクセサリー 上品バッグ 豊富な 指輪 リング (http://www NULL.pigtailsandflipflops NULL.com/%E8%B6%85%E7%BE%8E-%E3%82%B0%E3%83%83%E3%83%81-gucci-%E9%80%9A%E8%B2%A9/%E5%93%81%E8%B3%AA%E5%90%88%E6%A0%BC-%E5%B0%8F%E7%89%A9-%E6%96%B0%E4%BD%9C%E5%85%A5%E8%8D%B7) says:

    アクセサリー 上品バッグ 豊富な 指輪 リング…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  23. Nuove Air Max (http://affetti NULL.com/topair NULL.asp) says:

    Nuove Air Max…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  24. 当店限定モデルス 第7弾 クロノ スポーツ (http://www NULL.allyanddarrell NULL.com/%E5%93%81%E8%B3%AA%E8%87%B3%E4%B8%8A-technos-%E3%82%A2%E3%82%A6%E3%83%88%E3%83%AC%E3%83%83%E3%83%88) says:

    当店限定モデルス 第7弾 クロノ スポーツ…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  25. nike air jordan 9 retro birmingham barons (http://www NULL.pathwaycnc NULL.com/elegant-nike-air-jordan-online-verkauf/exquisit-nike-air-jordan-9-grosshandel) says:

    nike air jordan 9 retro birmingham barons…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  26. occhiali da sole ray ban prezzi (http://www NULL.occhialivendita NULL.com/) says:

    occhiali da sole ray ban prezzi…

    Hi there would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using? I’m looking to start my own blog soon but I’m having a hard time selecting between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your layout seems different…

  27. Air Max Nike (http://vistapalace NULL.com/ita/pro-air NULL.asp) says:

    Air Max Nike…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  28. toms classics grey farrin & pink womens slip on shoes (http://www NULL.margueritejuiceplus NULL.com/attraktiv-toms-geschaft/erschwinglich-toms-classics-ausgang) says:

    toms classics grey farrin & pink womens slip on shoes…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  29. Air Max Skyline (http://sespi NULL.it/log NULL.asp) says:

    Air Max Skyline…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  30. スケートシューズ (http://www NULL.gwunderlich NULL.com/%E4%BF%9D%E9%9A%9C%E3%81%A7%E3%81%8D%E3%81%BE%E3%81%99-vans-%E3%83%90%E3%83%B3%E3%82%BA-%E6%96%B0%E4%BD%9C%E5%85%A5%E8%8D%B7/%E4%BF%A1%E9%A0%BC-california-%E5%8E%B3%E9%81%B8) says:

    スケートシューズ…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  31. ネイルケア img buyma c (http://www NULL.go-australia NULL.net/%E3%81%8A%E6%B0%97%E3%81%AB%E3%81%84%E3%82%8B-%E3%81%9D%E3%81%AE%E4%BB%96%E3%83%96%E3%83%A9%E3%83%B3%E3%83%89-%EF%BC%A3%E3%83%BB%E3%83%87%E3%82%A3%E3%82%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%A) says:

    ネイルケア img buyma c…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  32. バッグ カバン バックパック (http://www NULL.purlsonalize NULL.com/%E3%82%AA%E3%83%B3%E3%83%A9%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%82%BB%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB-vans-%E3%83%90%E3%83%B3%E3%82%BA-%E3%82%AA%E3%83%B3%E3%83%A9%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%82%B9%E3%83%88%E3) says:

    バッグ カバン バックパック…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  33. voyance (http://esfrance NULL.net/) says:

    voyance…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  34. ファーサイト 超leopardcat レオパードキャット (http://www NULL.rsjsupport NULL.com/%E6%96%B0%E3%81%97%E3%81%8F%E7%9D%80%E3%81%8D-%E3%83%AC%E3%83%87%E3%82%A3%E3%83%BC%E3%82%BA%E3%83%BB%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%83%83%E3%82%B7%E3%83%A7%E3%83%B3-%E6%96%B0%E4%BD%9C/) says:

    ファーサイト 超leopardcat レオパードキャット…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  35. adidas scarpe donna (http://www NULL.sportivevendita NULL.com/) says:

    adidas scarpe donna…

    Howdy would you mind stating which blog platform you’re using? I’m looking to start my own blog in the near future but I’m having a tough time deciding between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your layout seem…

  36. Scarpe Nike Air Max (http://hotelsciaonmartin NULL.it/eng/shop NULL.asp) says:

    Scarpe Nike Air Max…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  37. my boyfriend has premature ejaculation (http://adullact NULL.net/tracker/download NULL.php/169/755/7505/2877/my-boyfriend-has-premature-ejaculation-my-husband-premature-ejaculation-pills-to-prevent-premature-ejaculation-post-ssri-premature-ejaculatio) says:

    my boyfriend has premature ejaculation…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  38. www.clash-of-clans-hack-tool.net (http://www NULL.clash-of-clans-hack-tool NULL.net) says:

    http://www.clash-of-clans-hack-tool.net.. (http://www NULL.clash-of-clans-hack-tool NULL.net NULL. NULL.).

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  39. 便利な メイク小物 雑誌でimg src httpサイト (http://www NULL.fallschurchrelay NULL.com/%E9%A9%9A%E3%81%8D%E3%81%AE%E5%80%A4%E6%AE%B5%E3%81%A7-%E3%82%AF%E3%83%AA%E3%82%B9%E3%83%81%E3%83%A3%E3%83%B3%E3%83%BB%E3%83%87%E3%82%A3%E3%82%AA%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB-%E4%) says:

    便利な メイク小物 雑誌でimg src httpサイト…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  40. カ行 コード cord (http://www NULL.walterlape NULL.com/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%82%BF%E3%83%BC-porter/%E5%9E%8B%E5%88%A5/%E3%82%B7%E3%83%A7%E3%83%AB%E3%83%80%E3%83%BC%E3%83%90%E3%83%83%E3%82%B0/field-%E3%83%95%E3%82%A3%E3%83%BC%E3%8) says:

    カ行 コード cord…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  41. バッグ ヒップ ウエスト ボディバッグ (http://www NULL.xstir NULL.com/%E3%81%8A%E6%B0%97%E3%81%AB%E3%81%84%E3%82%8B-orobianco-%E3%82%AA%E3%83%AD%E3%83%93%E3%82%A2%E3%83%B3%E3%82%B3-%E6%96%B0%E5%88%B0%E7%9D%80/%E9%9D%9E%E5%B8%B8%E3%81%AB%E5%AE%89%E3%) says:

    バッグ ヒップ ウエスト ボディバッグ…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  42. ヴェルニ ベージュプードル (http://www NULL.ddesantidavis NULL.com/%E6%95%B0%E9%87%8F%E3%81%AF%E5%A4%9A%E3%81%84-lv-%E3%83%AB%E3%82%A4-%E3%83%B4%E3%82%A3%E3%83%88%E3%83%B3-%E3%81%8C%E5%A4%A7%E5%A4%89%E3%81%8A%E8%B2%B7%E5%BE%97/%E6%A4%9C%E) says:

    ヴェルニ ベージュプードル…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  43. cialis generique france (http://maragariotv NULL.soup NULL.io/) says:

    cialis generique france…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  44. outlet scarpe hogan milano (http://arteseduzione NULL.it/expirerpro/pages/) says:

    outlet scarpe hogan milano…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  45. Nike Trainers Wholesale UK (http://www NULL.memyselfandmri NULL.org/uploads/about NULL.htm) says:

    Nike Trainers Wholesale UK…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  46. バッグ カバン ショルダーバッグ (http://www NULL.indianiprlaw NULL.net/%E7%89%B9%E5%88%A5%E3%83%87%E3%82%B6%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3-gucci-%E3%82%B0%E3%83%83%E3%83%81-%E3%82%AA%E3%83%B3%E3%83%A9%E3%82%A4%E3%83%B3%E3%82%BB%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB/%E6%95%B0%) says:

    バッグ カバン ショルダーバッグ…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  47. ジレ|ベスト (http://www NULL.advancevermont NULL.com/%E4%B8%8A%E5%93%81-%E3%83%A1%E3%83%B3%E3%82%BA%E3%83%BB%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%83%83%E3%82%B7%E3%83%A7%E3%83%B3-%E3%82%BB%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB/%E5%90%84%E5%BF%85%E8%A6%81%E3%8) says:

    ジレ|ベスト…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  48. スウェット.トレーナー (http://www NULL.cheatdeathnow NULL.com/%E6%9C%89%E5%90%8D%E3%83%96%E3%83%A9%E3%83%B3%E3%83%88-%E3%83%AC%E3%83%87%E3%82%A3%E3%83%BC%E3%82%BA%E3%83%BB%E3%83%95%E3%82%A1%E3%83%83%E3%82%B7%E3%83%A7%E3%83%B3-%E8%B4%) says:

    スウェット.トレーナー…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  49. replica nike air max (http://www NULL.lacapitalesalem NULL.com/nikeairmaxcheap NULL.htm) says:

    replica nike air max…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

  50. Air Max Shoes (http://bollywoodwave NULL.com/wp-content/themes/tem/) says:

    Air Max Shoes…

    Dick Brannan, Part II « Drag Racer…

Leave a Comment

You must be logged in to post a comment.