Jan 28, 2009 | Views: 21,863
For about $32,000, you can buy a 2006 Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution IX and smoke that stuffed shirt.
Mitsubishi introduced the Lancer Evolution IX in Japan on March 3, 2005, and exhibited the car at the Geneva Motor Show for the European market the same day. The North American markets saw the model exhibited at the New York International Auto Show the following month. The 2.0 L 4G63 engine has MIVEC technology (variable valve timing), boosting official power output at the crankshaft to 286 hp (213 kW) and torque to 289 ft•lbf (392 N•m). The Evolution VIII first offered in 2003 would produce dynamometer readings of approximately 225 WHP and 225 lb•ft (305 N•m). WTQ with a flywheel power rating of 271/273 respectively. The Evolution IX typically pulls 255 WHP and 250 WTQ on a wheel dynamometer, a difference of 30 hp (22 kW).
The USDM Lancer Evolution IX models (standard; "GSR" in some markets), RS, SE, and MR) varied slightly in their performance capabilities. Subtleties unique to each model accounted for variations in acceleration, handling and top speed. The RS excluded features standard on the standard, SE and MR models (stereo system, power windows and locks, rear wiper, rear wing, trunk lining and sound insulation). The resulting weight savings of over 60 lb (27 kg) gave the RS a subtly sharper handling responsiveness that helped it shave fractions of a second off the lap times of other models on an identical course. However, the top-end MR had a high top speed, since its 6th forward gear allowed it to reach 165 mph (266 km/h) at 7,000 rpm compared to 157 mph (253 km/h) at 7,000 rpm in 5th for the RS and middle-positioned IX models.
The IX MR retained the features of the Evolution VIII MR, like Bilstein shocks, a 6-speed manual transmission, a rooftop vortex generator, BBS forged wheels, HID xenon headlights, foglights, accessory gauge package, "zero lift" kit, special badging and an aluminum roof. All models continued to sport Recaro bucket seats, Brembo brakes and MOMO steering wheels. Additional revisions from 2005 included a closer gear ratio for the 5-speed manual transmission, new lighter Enkei wheels on non-MR models, a redesigned front end with a more efficient air dam (the most noticeable feature are the two small oval ducts to cool the intercooler pipes), and a new rear bumper with a diffuser undersurface to smooth out the airflow coming out of the car for non-US models. In an effort to reduce the price increase on the Evolution IX model, HID headlights were no longer standard equipment on the base IX (nor were they standard on the 2005 VIII), and were available only in the SSL package (Sun, Sound, and Leather), SE (Special Edition) and MR trims.
Three trims were available for Japan, Asia and Europe. Although all models used the same 286 hp (213 kW) engine, the torque differed from one model to another. In Europe, however, the Evolution IX was advertised to have 280 hp (206 kW). The GSR produced 295 ft•lbf (400 N•m) of torque, while the RS and GT produced 300 ft•lbf (407 N•m).
RS - "ralli sport", revised 5-speed, aluminium roof, gauge pack, minimal interior, LSD and a titanium-magnesium turbine, left-hand drive option available.
GT - revised 5-speed, this is basically the RS mechanically, but with some of the GSR's features (mainly interior pieces).
GSR - 6-speed, Bilstein monotube shocks, aluminium roof, gauge pack, SAYC (Super Active Yaw Control), and double-din radio (this is roughly equivalent to the USDM MR).
In the United Kingdom, the Evolution IX used a different model scheme based on the car's horsepower. There were initially three models available: the FQ-300, FQ-320 and FQ-340 each with around 300, 320 and 340 bhp (254 kW) respectively. An FQ-360 model was subsequently released as a successor to the Evolution VIII FQ-400. While the new FQ-360 produced less horsepower than its predecessor, it had more torque at 363 lb•ft (492 N•m) at 3200 rpm - 8 lb•ft (11 N•m) more than the FQ-400. All four models were designed to run on super unleaded petrol only.
FQ-300, 320, 340 - 6-speed, Bilstein monotube shocks, AYC (Active Yaw Control), super unleaded petrol only
FQ-360 - 6-speed, Bilstein monotube shocks, AYC (Active Yaw Control), Ralliart Sports Meter Kit, carbon front splitter, Speedline alloy wheels, super unleaded petrol only
Four models were available in the US. All models used the same 286 hp (213 kW) engine. All models used a front and rear Limited Slip Differential, and an Active Center Differential.
Standard - revised 5-speed, standard model
RS - ralli sport, revised 5-speed, aluminum roof, gauge pack, minimal interior
SE - Special Edition, aluminum roof/hood, and front fenders, split seven-spoke forged aluminum BBS wheels in "diamond black" finish, HID headlights with integrated fog lights, red-stitched Recaro seats
MR - 6-speed, Bilstein monotube shocks, split seven-spoke forged aluminum BBS wheels, aluminum roof, hood, and front fenders, gauge pack, HID headlights with integrated fog lights, vortex generator, and custom MR badging.
All of the American models are the same in power and performance. The only thing that sets them apart is the Evo RS, which is 80 lb (36 kg) lighter than the MR and SE models.
To the standard (or "GSR") model, the Sun, Sound and Leather package added a power sunroof, HID xenon headlamps with integrated fog lights, a slightly different stereo headunit (with no integral amplifier), slightly upgraded speakers in the front doors and parcel shelf, a 4.1-channel amplifier under the driver's seat, a powered, trunk-mounted Infinity subwoofer, black leather seating surfaces, leather-trimmed door panels, slightly revised center armrests in the front and rear, and separate rear side headrests. This model deleted the GSR's headliner-mounted sunglass holder to make room for the sunroof.
A 2,500-piece, limited edition Evolution IX station wagon was released in Japan soon after the sedan's debut. It used the back end of the Lancer Sportback wagon grafted onto the sedan. Two trim models were introduced: the GT with a six-speed manual transmission and the GT-A with a 5-speed automatic. Other than the station wagon rear end, redesigned seats and some chromed trims, the car's interior was the same as the sedan.
Mitsubishi also developed the Evolution MIEV, based on the Evolutions IX's chassis but with four electric motors connected to the wheels as a test bed for the Mitsubishi In-wheel Electric Vehicle (MIEV) next-generation electric vehicle. The in-wheel motors used a hollow doughnut construction to locate the rotor outside the stator, unlike other electric motors where the rotor turns inside the stator. The result of this was a lighter motor which translated into lower unsprung weight than a system with the motors mounted in the wheels. Each in-wheel motor produced a power output of 68 hp (51 kW), thus giving a combined output of 272 hp (203 kW), comparable to that of regular, petrol powered Lancer Evolutions. The car competed in the Shikoku EV (Electric Vehicle) Rally 2005.
The Philippines had the Evolution IX until in August 2008, which was offered in two trims, the entry-level RS offering a 5-speed manual transmission, Brembo 17-in. ventilated discs (4-Pot), Brembo 16-in ventilated drum-in-disc (2-Pot) and almost the same features as to that of the GSR trim in the international version. The MR was the top-of-the-line segment, which offers almost the same feature as to that of the MR trim in the international verision. All of them are powered by a l4 2.0 4G63 turbocharged MIVEC engine.
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Jan 4, 2009 | Views: 1,276
It has very neutral balance so it's a great car for beginners. It’s a small, lightweight sports car that loves to be driven hard. The higher up in the revs, the better! It’s a real driver’s car and is designed for only that purpose alone.
Drifting the MX-5 in stock form is somewhat of a challenge, but that also makes it a great car to learn from. The weight is its ultimate advantage as the older MX-5 weighs just under 1000kg and the newer models are a little heavier; just over 1000kg. Power output is ranging from 115hp on older models to 160hp on newer models.
You don’t see this car very often in drifting because it is generally considered to be more of a beginner’s car, but personally I can never get enough of this car.
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Jan 4, 2009 | Views: 1,145
Being RWD you can get the older generations, the Mark I and the Mark II that started in the late 70s, but the more popular models are the Mark III and Mark IV. Especially the latest model, the Mark IV with the 3.0 liter twin-turbo 2JZGE engine, is highly popular.
For more info logon to:http://racefo...ta-supra.html
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Jan 4, 2009 | Views: 864
It’s a well designed car that comes very close to 50:50 weight distribution. The 1.3 liter rotary engine that has been taken under hands is now smaller in size and weighs less than previous rotary engine. It has better fuel economy and increased power output.
For full info logon to:http://racefo...zda-rx-8.html
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Nov 7, 2008 | Views: 4,100
The engine was invented by engineer Felix Wankel. He began its development in the early 1950s at NSU Motorenwerke AG (NSU) before completing a working, running prototype in 1957. NSU then subsequently licenced the concept to other companies across the globe, who added more efforts and improvements in the 1950s and 1960s.
Because of their compact, lightweight design, Wankel rotary engines have been installed in a variety of vehicles and devices such as automobiles and racing cars, aircraft, go-karts, personal water craft, and auxiliary power units.
In the Wankel engine, the four strokes of a typical Otto cycle occur in the space between a three-sided symmetric rotor and the inside of a housing. In the basic single-rotor Wankel engine, the oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing surrounds a rotor which is similar to a Reuleaux triangle, a three-pointed curve of constant width, but with the bulge in the middle of each side a bit more flattened. From a theoretical perspective, the chosen shape of the rotor between the fixed apexes is basically the result of a minimization of the volume of the geometric combustion chamber and a maximization of the compression ratio, respectively. Thus, the symmetric curve connecting two arbitrary apexes of the rotor is maximized in the direction of the inner housing shape with the constraint not to touch the housing at any angle of rotation (an arc is not a solution of this optimization problem).
The central drive shaft, also called an eccentric shaft or E-shaft, passes through the center of the rotor and is supported by bearings. The rotor both rotates around an offset lobe (crank) on the E-shaft and makes orbital revolutions around the central shaft. Seals at the corners of the rotor seal against the periphery of the housing, dividing it into three moving combustion chambers. Fixed gears mounted on each side of the housing engage with ring gears attached to the rotor to ensure the proper orientation as the rotor moves.
The best way to visualize the action of the engine in the animation at left is to look not at the rotor itself, but the cavity created between it and the housing. The Wankel engine is actually a variable-volume progressing-cavity system. Thus there are 3 cavities per housing, all repeating the same cycle. Note as well that points A and B on the rotor and e-shaft turn at different speed, point B moves 3 times faster than point A, so that one full orbit of the rotor equates to 3 turns of the e-shaft.
As the rotor rotates and orbitally revolves, each side of the rotor gets closer and farther from the wall of the housing, compressing and expanding the combustion chamber similarly to the strokes of a piston in a reciprocating engine. The power vector of the combustion stage goes through the center of the offset lobe.
While a four-stroke piston engine makes one combustion stroke per cylinder for every two rotations of the crankshaft (that is, one half power stroke per crankshaft rotation per cylinder), each combustion chamber in the Wankel generates one combustion stroke per each driveshaft rotation, i.e. one power stroke per rotor orbital revolution and three power strokes per rotor rotation. Thus, power output of a Wankel engine is generally higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar engine displacement in a similar state of tune; and higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar physical dimensions and weight.
Wankel engines also generally have a much higher redline than a reciprocating engine of similar power output, mostly because of the gearing from the rotor to the e-shaft; and also because the smoothness inherent in the circular motion, which eliminates dangerous vibration that can occur in reciprocating engines due to the nature of their operation.
National agencies that tax automobiles according to displacement and regulatory bodies in automobile racing variously consider the Wankel engine to be equivalent to a four-stroke engine of 1.5 to 2 times the displacement; some racing sanctioning bodies ban it altogether.
Differences and Challenges
There are several defining characteristics that differentiate a rotary engine from a typical piston engine.
Fewer Moving Parts
The rotary engine has far fewer moving parts than a comparable four-stroke piston engine. A two-rotor rotary engine has three main moving parts: the two rotors and the output shaft. Even the simplest four-cylinder piston engine has at least 40 moving parts, including pistons, connecting rods, camshaft, valves, valve springs, rockers, timing belt, timing gears and crankshaft.
This minimization of moving parts can translate into better reliability from a rotary engine. This is why some aircraft manufacturers (including the maker of Skycar) prefer rotary engines to piston engines.
All the parts in a rotary engine spin continuously in one direction, rather than violently changing directions like the pistons in a conventional engine do. Rotary engines are internally balanced with spinning counterweights that are phased to cancel out any vibrations.
The power delivery in a rotary engine is also smoother. Because each combustion event lasts through 90 degrees of the rotor's rotation, and the output shaft spins three revolutions for each revolution of the rotor, each combustion event lasts through 270 degrees of the output shaft's rotation. This means that a single-rotor engine delivers power for three-quarters of each revolution of the output shaft. Compare this to a single-cylinder piston engine, in which combustion occurs during 180 degrees out of every two revolutions, or only a quarter of each revolution of the crankshaft (the output shaft of a piston engine).
Since the rotors spin at one-third the speed of the output shaft, the main moving parts of the engine move slower than the parts in a piston engine. This also helps with reliability.
There are some challenges in designing a rotary engine:
Typically, it is more difficult (but not impossible) to make a rotary engine meet U.S. emissions regulations.
The manufacturing costs can be higher, mostly because the number of these engines produced is not as high as the number of piston engines.
They typically consume more fuel than a piston engine
because the thermodynamic efficiency of the engine is reduced by the long combustion-chamber shape and low compression ratio.
Fuel consumption and emissions
Just as the shape of the Wankel combustion chamber prevents preignition, it also leads to incomplete combustion of the air-fuel charge, with the remaining unburned hydrocarbons released into the exhaust. While manufacturers of piston-engine cars were turning to expensive catalytic converters to completely oxidize the unburned hydrocarbons, Mazda was able to avoid this cost by enriching the air/fuel mixture and increasing the amount of unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust to actually support complete combustion in a 'thermal reactor' (an enlarged open chamber in the exhaust manifold) without the need for a catalytic converter, thereby producing a clean exhaust at the cost of some extra fuel consumption. World gasoline prices rose sharply at the time Mazda introduced their Wankel engine, making the cleaner exhaust/increased fuel consumption tradeoff an unwelcome one for consumers.
In Mazda's RX-8 with the Renesis engine, fuel consumption is now within normal limits while passing California State emissions requirements. The exhaust ports, which in earlier Mazda rotaries were located in the rotor housings, were moved to the sides of the combustion chamber. This approach allowed Mazda to eliminate overlap between intake and exhaust port openings, while simultaneously increasing exhaust port area. The Renesis engine even meets California's Low Emissions Vehicle or LEV standards.
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Oct 26, 2008 | Views: 863
The 2009 Porsche 911 Carerra 4, and its higher-powered Carrera 4S sibling, offer the same engines as in the standard Porsche 911 Carrera and Carrera S, which are new for the 2009 model year.
Having the electronically controlled AWD system offered in 911 Carerra 4 and 4S on board addresses some of the issues that plague 911 owners, namely extreme instability in wet weather, and a steep learning curve where the 911 Carrera tends to break traction more easily than the driver intends it to.
While still retaining all the power of the standard 2009 911 Carerra and Carrerra S models, the AWD Carerra 4 models are easier to drive in all conditions, and feature wider rear fenders and tires for a more aggressive look.
Porsche Carrera 4 with Electronically Controlled All-Wheel Drive
[Porsche Press Release]
Stuttgart. Showing the dynamic attitude typical of the brand, Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, Stuttgart, are continuing the generation change of the 911 model series. Just a few weeks after the new 911s with classic rear-wheel drive, the all-wheel-drive versions Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S are now entering the market in both Coupé and Cabriolet guise.
A whole range of new technologies surrounding the engine, the transmission and drivetrain ensures an even higher standard of driving pleasure on much lower fuel consumption. Particularly the precision and fast response of the new, electronically controlled all-wheel drive offers an even more intense driving experience, above all in interaction with the likewise new flat-six engines with Direct Fuel Injection and the PDK Porsche Doppelkupplungsgetriebe or double-clutch gearbox available as an option.
The features and characteristics of the new engines speak for themselves: Depending on the model, the new all-wheel-drive Carrera offers up to 8.5 per cent more power, up to 12.9 per cent more fuel economy, and 15.4 per cent lower CO2 emissions. Specifically, output of the 3.6-litre power unit is up by 20 to 345 bhp (254 kW). At the same time a Carrera 4 Coupé with PDK, to take just one example, consumes a mere 10.1 litres of fuel per 100 kilometres, equal to 28.0 mpg imp. The improvements on the 911 Carrera 4S with its 3.8-litre power unit are equally significant, with maximum output up by 30 to 385 bhp (283 kW) on overall fuel consumption down in the case of Carrera 4S Cabriolet with PDK to 10.7 litres/100 km, equal to 26.4 mpg imp.
In the new generation of the Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S electronically controlled PTM Porsche Traction Management replaces the former all-wheel drive with its viscous multiple-plate clutch. This superior system developed for the 911 Turbo and modified for the Carrera models combines the driving pleasure so typical of Porsche with an even higher standard of driving stability, traction and agile handling further enhanced by the mechanical rear axle differential fitted as standard.
The new all-wheel-drive sports cars come with sporting manual transmission featuring six gears. As an alternative the new models are available with Porsche's new Doppelkupplungsgetriebe replacing the former Tiptronic S automatic converter transmission and offering an even faster gearshift on less fuel. The Doppelkupplungsgetriebe or double-clutch gearbox comes with seven gears shifting electrohydraulically without the slightest interruption of traction and pulling force.
The new generation of the 911 model series stands out clearly through the discreet but striking modification of the front end and new lights technology. The new Carrera models come in all cases with bi-xenon headlights and new LED daytime driving lights.
The newly designed rear light clusters also feature LED technology and for the first time Porsche offers Dynamic Bending Lights as an option. It almost goes without saying that all Carrera 4 models come as before with their muscular rear end 44 millimetres or 1.73" wider than on the two-wheel-drive versions. And a new reflector trim bar between the LED rear lights gives the typical rear end of the car even more dynamic character.
New PCM Porsche Communication Management with its touch-sensitive screen improves operation of the in some cases optional navigation, information and audio systems to an even higher standard. And a further important point is that PCM is now compatible with Bluetooth, USB and iPod requirements.
2009 Porsche 911 Carrera 4 Specifications
Layout Rear Engine, Electronically Controlled AWD
Transmission 6 Speed Manual
Transmission Available 7 Speed Dual Clutch Sequential Manual
Displacement 3.6 Liters, 3.8 Liters in "S" Models
Horsepower 345 hp, 385 in "S" models
Engine Type Direct Injection Flat-6 "Boxer" Engine
Fuel Economy Up to 28 mpg Highway
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Oct 25, 2008 | Views: 642
Acc. to my information valentino Rossi is leading the Moto GP class and the second position holder is Casey Stoner With THe Powerful Ducati machine.And rossi is surely gone win becoz a huge gap of points.
So Don't miss it.............
This is motogeeeksatyam reviewing end Gp of Moto GP
The attached photo is a special gift from me to Moto GP and all my friends and blog readers.
(Nothing Important to read below so don't scrool down.)
The attached photo is created/edited by me.
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Oct 23, 2008 | Views: 615
On your motorcycle, your riding strategy, physical skills, and protective
gear—in that order—are what separate you from the ground. These are
the three degrees of separation.
On your motorcycle, your riding strategy, physical skills, and protective gear—in
that order—are what separate you from the ground. These are the three degrees
of separation. By themselves, each of the three degrees can save you.
Combined, they create a nearly impenetrable defense against the hazards
motorcyclists face every day.
Riding strategy is your first degree of separation, because mental skills, as you know, make up 90% of everyday riding. One hundred percent attention to your surroundings, accurate detection and perception of road hazards and risks, and sound judgment and decision making are the primary keys of a good riding strategy.
Attitude also plays a part. Taking responsibility for your own actions is easy, but because you, the motorcyclist, will more likely suffer bodily harm in the event of a crash, then you, the motorcyclist, must take responsibility for everyone else’s actions as well. This means being tuned into not only your self, your bike, and your environment, but also being aware of other drivers, correctly anticipating their behavior, and effectively avoiding hazards before they place you at risk. Ideally, a skilled rider avoids hazards before they even become hazards.
Physical skills are your second degree of separation. You acquire them through training and they require constant practice to keep them sharp. Though they make up only a small percentage of everyday riding, when you really need them, they instantly become 90% of your survival. When something breaks through your mental barrier (as any hazard worth its weight is prone to do), instinct, self-preservation, and adrenaline have to take over. At these moments, if your physical response isn’t the correct one, you’ll immediately need to rely on your third degree of separation: protective gear.
Protective riding gear is your backup in case your first two lines of defense crumble. When something finds its way past your first two barriers, what you’re wearing is all you have left. It’s technically a combination of the first and second degrees. Mentally, it falls under preparation. Physically, it protects you from the ravages of the pavement and the elements such as heat, wind, rain and cold that can affect your ability to (mentally, again) concentrate and operate the bike.
In theory, your mental strategy can protect you from everything. For those times when your brain can’t save you, your physical skills and ability to control your motorcycle are your backup plan. What your mind and skills can’t protect you from, your riding gear has to. Each degree of separation can stand on its own, but each is far more potent when combined with the others.
Let’s look at an example of the three degrees of separation:
Meet Veemax Vince. Vince loves his bike. He uses it for commuting, transportation, traveling, and recreation. He likes the way he looks on his bike. He likes the way it makes him feel.
Unfortunately, Vince doesn’t use a riding strategy, has never taken rider training, doesn’t practice anything, and doesn’t wear protective gear. He just likes to ride, but genuinely thinks he knows how to handle his bike. Besides, he’s ridden for two years without an accident. He knows what he’s doing. Right?
One day, Vince is on his way home from work. It’s 4:30, summer, the sun’s shining, and the traffic is typical for rush-hour. He’s wearing penny loafers, slacks, a shirt and tie, and sunglasses. He’s riding down Last Chance Avenue, an urban four-laner that has no median, stop lights every four blocks, and a 30 mph speed limit. There’s no parking on either side of the street, and gas stations, liquor stores, motels, and apartment buildings are spaced evenly apart. Vince is five minutes from work and five minutes from home.
Vince approaches a four-way intersection. He’s got the green light and he’s in the left lane. His plan (if you could call it that) is cruising straight on through at 30 mph. On the far right corner of the intersection is a convenience store. In the right lane, in front of the convenience store, is a big delivery truck, parked illegally, with its flashers on. The truck is blocking Vince’s view of the store’s exit.
The truck is also blocking the view of Sherry Cavalier, the woman trying to turn left out of the convenience store, behind the truck. She takes a slug of her Coke, sets it down, looks left and right, doesn’t see anyone coming, and pulls out—right in front of Vince. Vince’s eyes grow as big as saucers, and he panics. He grabs a big handful of front brake and stomps on the rear. Sherry suddenly sees Vince, her eyes grow as big as saucers, and she panics. She slams on her brakes and stops directly in his path.
Vince’s ride is over. He slides, both tires locked and smoking, into Sherry’s left-front fender at about 20 mph. He is thrown from his bike, and he vaults over Sherry’s hood and lands on the blacktop on his head and forearms.
Twenty minutes later, Vince is on his way to the hospital, in a coma, with a fractured skull, broken hand, broken wrist, and snapped collar bone. He’s got multiple lacerations on his arms and chest, and a heapin’of road rash. His bike is bent in half and lying in a pool of gas and oil. Sherry, after giving her tearful statement to the police, drives home with a bent front wheel and crushed fender, sipping the Coke she bought forty minutes ago. It’s still cold.
Was there something Vince could’ve done to prevent this? Yes. There were a number of things he could’ve done:
If he’d been using a riding strategy, he would’ve been more cautious riding through the intersection. He would’ve known the most dangerous place for a motorcyclist is an intersection. He might have slowed down, and covered his brakes and clutch to reduce his reaction time. He may have noticed the big blind spot created by the delivery truck, and slowed even more or adjusted his position to accommodate it.
If he’d taken rider training, he’d have known how to use his brakes properly, and possibly been able to stop, or slow his bike enough to avoid the crash with a quick swerve.
If he’d been wearing a helmet, gloves, and a jacket, he might have gotten up, dusted himself off, and spent the next ten minutes yelling at Sherry. Then he would’ve spent the rest of the afternoon mourning the loss of his beautiful bike.
Any one of the three degrees of separation probably would’ve changed the outcome dramatically in Vince’s favor. Had Vince been using all of them simultaneously, this accident likely never would have happened.
If you already use the three degrees, great. If you don’t, it’s time to start: If you don’t have a riding strategy, create one. If you have never taken a safety course, take one. And if you don’t wear protective gear, get some—the best you can afford.
But once you’ve done all that, is there nothing left? Do you just “stop learning” once you have the three degrees mastered? Of course not. Is it okay to be a “pretty good” rider instead of an expert? No way. Is there more to riding than just the three degrees? You bet. There’s a lot more.
The three degrees cannot protect you from everything—but they can protect you 99 percent of the time.
For ideas on how to protect yourself from the one percenters, try Ride Hard, Ride Smart—Ultimate Street
Strategies for Advanced Motorcyclists. In RH, RS, I use the three degrees of separation as a starting point to explore more advanced riding strategies: dealing with other drivers, choosing the safest route, vision and visibility, when not to ride, intersections, risk and hazard hierarchy, speed differential, shadowing, the soft lane change, understanding traffic flow, and group riding, among other concepts. As a bonus, there is an in-depth look at the Hurt Study, and what it means today.
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Oct 21, 2008 | Views: 1,362
While most of us can only dream of owning the fastest car in the world, some will do whatever it takes to possess such speed and power.So, how fast are the fastest cars in the world? Here is the 10 fastest cars available on the market measures by top speed.
1.SSC Ultimate Aero: 257 mph+, 0-60 in 2.7 secs. Twin-Turbo V8 Engine with 1183 hp, base price is $654,400. Tested in March 2007 by Guinness world records, The SSC Ultimate Aero takes the lead as the fastest car in the world beating Bugatti Veyron.
2.Bugatti Veyron: 253 mph+, 0-60 in 2.5 secs. Aluminum, Narrow Angle W16 Engine with 1001 hp, base price is $1,444,000. With the highest price tag, no wonder this is rank #2.but it has the highest pickup
3. Koenigsegg CCX: 250 mph+, 0-60 in 3.2 secs. 90 Degree V8 Engine 806 hp, base price is $695,000. Made in Sweden, it is expected to take #1 spot in the future.
4.Saleen S7 Twin-Turbo: 248 mph+, 0-60 in 3.2 secs. Twin Turbo All Aluminum V8 Engine with 750 hp, base price is $555,000. Smooth and bad-ášš, will make you want to show it off non-stop.
5.McLaren F1: 240 mph+, 0-60 in 3.2 secs. BMW S70/2 60 Degree V12 Engine with 627 hp, base price is $970,000. Check out the doors, they looks like bat wings, maybe Batman need to order one and paints it black.
6.Ferrari Enzo: 217 mph+, 0-60 in 3.4 secs. F140 Aluminum V12 Engine with 660 hp, base price is $670,000. Only 399 ever produced, the price goes up every time someone crashes.
7.Jaguar XJ220: 217 mph+, 0-60 in 4.0 secs. Twin Turbo V6 Engine with 542 hp, base price is $345,000. Made in 1992, this car still got what it takes to make the list.
8.Pagani Zonda F: 215 mph+, 0-60 in 3.5 secs. Mercedes Benz M180 V12 Engine with 650 hp, base price is $741,000. With a V12 motor, this baby can do much better.
9.Lamborghini Murcielago LP640: 213 mph+, 0-60 in 3.3 secs. V12 Engine with 640 hp, base price is $430,000. Nice piece of art, the design is very round and smooth.
10. Porsche Carrera GT: 209 mph+, 0-60 in 3.9 secs. Aluminum, 68 Degree, Water Cooled V10 Engine with 612 hp, base price is $440,000. The Porsche most expensive car made the list as #10.
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Oct 20, 2008 | Views: 3,153
Saleen manufactures limited edition, high-performance vehicles. Saleen is an automotive original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and the last American small car manufacturer bearing OEM status. Unlike aftermarket "tuner" companies, Saleen is subject to the same federal regulations governing design and testing of their automotive products as larger vehicle manufacturers such as Ford, General Motors, or Toyota. Most of Saleen's vehicles are highly modified versions of existing mass produced sports cars such as the Ford Mustang. Saleen has produced over 8,000 modified Mustangs since its inception. It also produces modified versions of a number of other Ford models. the first saleen made was in 1984.
Saleen's flagship car is the Saleen S7, introduced in 2000. The S7 is a mid-engine, high-performance sports car that was initially priced at just under US$400,000. The S7 won four different GT championships in 2001 and has broken records at the prestigious 24-Hour Le Mans race. The S7 is Saleen's first production car not based on an existing design.
The parts and gear department of the company markets car parts and accessories such as custom wheels, exhaust systems, brakes and other high performance parts. Saleen operated a retail store at the Irvine Spectrum in Irvine, California to sell these car parts and accessories directly to customers and to offer vehicle sales without a need for a sales-lot. However, the store was quietly closed on December 7, 2007.
Saleen operates an assembly plant (Saleen Special Vehicles) in Troy, Michigan where it conducted assembly and painting for the Ford GT for Ford Motor Company and currently offers prototyping and show-car building services to other automotive OEMs.
As of mid-2005, Saleen discontinued manufacture of the "Nitrous-ready" N2O S121 Saleen Focus. The 550 hp (410 kW) naturally-aspirated mid-engine Saleen S7 was discontinued after the 2004 model year with the introduction of the Saleen S7TT although both editions are commonly referred to as the Saleen S7.
The company was founded in 1983 originally as Saleen Autosport by Steve Saleen, a former Formula Atlantic race car driver. In the first year Saleen built 3 cars as the first production run - a white hatchback, a copper glow hatchback, and a black hatchback. In 1984, Saleen Autosport became Saleen Performance, Incorporated. In 1984, Steve Saleen's secretary miscounted the vehicles produced that year, omitting vehicle number 6 as a result of confusing it with 9. Since 1984, Saleen has had the tradition of not issuing the #6 bumper number on any of its vehicles. Sometimes, a Mustang equipped with a Saleen aftermarket bodykit will bear 6 as its bumper number, signifying it as a "fake" Saleen Mustang. Each year up through the eighties, Saleen was able to produce a new record volume of cars. In late 1990, Saleen contracted with Car & Concepts in St. Louis to produce the Saleen Mustang. As the recession of the early 90's hit, so did it a take a toll on production. Cars & Concepts continue production through the 1991 model year when they closed their facility due to their own financial woes. Production was returned in-house to Saleen Performance, Incorporated in 1992. By then, the production of cars had been reduced to 12 for the 1992 model year. Steve Saleen teamed up with comedian Tim Allen in 1993 who helped to promote the Saleen Mustang and received new financial backing through Hidden Creek Industries. With a new financial backing and all-new body style in '94, production numbers began growing again. Beginning in 1995, Saleen-Allen Racing facilitated the start of preparations for the development of a ground-up vehicle project by implementing a 7.0L V8 engine in their track-cars which eventually gave rise to the powerplant utilized in the S7. In 1997, Saleen competed at the 24 Hours of le Mans, ending a 30-year Mustang hiatus from the event. During the development of the Saleen SR, Saleen formed a strategic partnership with BASF that resulted in the development of unique paint color formulations coupled with advertising centered around Saleen products. During this time, the Saleen paint color liztick red, named for Steve's wife, Elizabeth, was developed.
In the late 1990s, the company was renamed Saleen, Incorporated. Hancock Park Associates provided an infusion of financial support to allow Saleen to grow. Beginning at the end of 2004, major shifts occurred in the corporate structure of Saleen, moving away from a race-team style hierarchy toward a structure commensurate with an automotive OEM. At the end of July 2006, to much fanfare, Saleen opened a retail store at the Irvine Spectrum in Irvine, California which quietly closed in December 2007. Beginning with the 2007 model year, the Saleen-designed 450 hp (340 kW) supercharger kit in the F-150-based S331 was offered by Ford as a ship-through Ford-endorsed performance option on Harley Davidson Edition F150s. In early 2007, Daniel Reiner was appointed Chairman and CEO of Saleen. At the 2007 New York International Auto Show, Chip Foose unveiled a Ford-endorsed limited edition F150, powered by the Saleen-designed powertrain used on the Saleen S331SC. On May 14, 2007, Steve Saleen and Billy Tally resigned from Saleen after nearly 24 and approximately 9 years with the company, respectively. At the time of his resignation, Steve Saleen was serving in the position of Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors while Billy Tally was the Chief Officer of Technology. John Spruill, having last served as domestic programs manager, resigned from Saleen in early June 2007 after a nine year tenure with the company to continue his career working with Saleen and Tally in a different business venture.
On August 8, 2007, Paul Wilbur was named President and CEO of Saleen to succeed Reiner while Chris Theodore, formerly VP of Product Development at Ford, was appointed to the position of CTO, filling the position vacated by Billy Tally.
In early 2008, Saleen began reducing the non-engineering staff located in Irvine, California and consolidating operations in its Troy, Michigan manufacturing plant, relocating its official headquarters to that location. Chris Theodore, previously in the position of CTO, was promoted to the position of CEO at Saleen on August 8, 2008 when Paul Wilbur vacated the position to pursue business opportunities outside of Saleen.On August 12, 2008 Miedema Auctioneering held a 10 hour auction for Saleen Inc. at 6567 Sterling Drive South, Sterling Heights, MI 48312. During the auction it was possible to obtain everything necessary to assemble a new Saleen Mustang. All factory furniture, tooling, and facilities were for auction. Computers, milling machines, work tables and office equipment hastily piled was listed for sale.
On August 18, 2008 Miedema Auctioneering executed a similar auction at Saleen Inc.
The current (2008) model range consists of:
Saleen S7R (2005-) - a non-street legal racing-only version of the S7, intended for races such as the 24 Hours of Le Mans sharing the updated body styling of the S7TT
Saleen S281 3V - 360 hp (270 kW) - For the 2008 model year, the naturally aspirated 3-valve possesses an increased power rating in addition to a multitude of refinements to improve the road-handling of the vehicle.
Saleen S281 RF/AF - the Red Flag (RF) and American Flag (AF) are 465 hp (347 kW) surpercharged versions of the S281. These vehicles offer the thrill of supercharged fun at a discount price. Content such as the SC vented hood, SC rear wing, S281 quarter window trim, and standard S281 seating are omitted. The RF is available in black or alloy with standard red decals while the AF is available in torch red, vista blue, and white with red, white, blue exterior decals. Both come standard with chrome wheels.
Saleen S281 SC - a 465 hp (347 kW) supercharged version of the S281
Saleen S302 E - 620 hp (460 kW) - Borrowing from the S302PJ, the S302E utilizes an engine derived from that used on the Limited Edition but equipped with a Saleen Series VI Supercharger to maximize power. This model replaces the S281E for the 2008 model year.
SA-25 - Saleen's 25th anniversary, "Sterling Edition" of the S302E
Saleen S331SC - a supercharged, 450 hp (340 kW) performance sport truck based upon the Ford F-150 FX2 and available in both supercab and supercrew variants
Saleen H302 - 390 hp (290 kW) - A follow-on to the H281, this limited-production edition shares the majority of the bodywork of and possesses a high-compression, 302 CID based on those of the S302 Parnelli Jones Limited Edition. Unlike the H281, this version has the same hood scoop as on the S302PJ but lacks the chrome trim accents and is available in all Ford OEM colors except grabber orange. The body side stripes are identical to those on the H281.
Saleen H302 SC - 580 hp (430 kW) - Equipped with a Saleen forced-induction system, this version is an increased performance version of the H302 with options for some of the features that appeared on the S302PJ such as a Watts Link. Due to the supercharger, this vehicle is unable to be equipped with the hood scoop featured on the S302PJ.
Saleen H281 SC Dan Gurney Limited Edition - 465 hp (347 kW) A 2008 model year special edition run of 300 (100 Blue, 100 Red, 100 White) Mustang-based vehicles sporting styling reminiscent of DG's 1969 Boss 302 Trans-Am racer.
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Oct 20, 2008 | Views: 6,883
Reports of the MTT Turbine SUPERBIKE appeared as early as 1999 in a May issue of Cafe Racer magazine, but the production model was introduced in 2000.
Powered by a Rolls Royce Allison 250 series turboshaft engine, producing 238 kW (320 hp), this bike has a price tag of US$150,000 (US$185,000 in 2004). It is recognized by Guinness World Records as the "Most powerful production motorcycle" and the "Most expensive production motorcycle." Unlike some earlier jet-powered motorcycles, where a massive jet engine provided thrust to push the motorcycle, the turboshaft engine on this model drives the rear wheel via a two-speed gearbox. Riding the motorcycle is said to be somewhat tricky due to the inherent throttle lag in the engine, acceleration when letting off the throttle, and extreme length.
The engines used in the motorcycles are second-hand, having reached the FAA running time limit, after which they have to be rebuilt, regardless of condition. MTT can buy these engines for a much lower price than new engines and use them on surface vehicles without requiring FAA approval. One of the engine's more usual applications is powering the 1.5 ton Bell 206 JetRanger helicopters. To get around the problem of procuring the kerosene usually used in turbine engines, the engine of the bike has been modified to use diesel fuel.
In addition to the engine, there are other innovations incorporated into this bike, such as radar detector with laser scrambler, rear mounted camera with LCD display, and an optional passenger seat.
Unlike other contemporary motorcycles (such as the Hayabusa), the 2001 and later models of the MTT Turbine SUPERBIKE do not have the 300 km/h speed limiting governors self-imposed by Japanese manufacturers.
In 2008, MTT released the "Streetfighter," another jet-bike with a stronger, 420-horsepower (310 kW) engine
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Oct 20, 2008 | Views: 692
Firstly, let's look at the big comparison; cars. To my mind, a lot (if not the vast majority) of people learn to drive because they have to. It was less of a necessity in days gone by, but now it's hard to do anything without a method of transport. Many people will think nothing of commuting twenty or thirty miles to work and it's not something you want to be doing on public transport (despite what the Government would have you believe - have you seen rail prices? I don't want to buy the train! For the cost of a season ticket you could probably get chauffeured in a limo).
In comparison to thirty years ago, for example, towns and cities are much more accessible. We have a road network that (in theory) allows you to travel through the country on high speed motorways, with the idea of driving from one big city to another holding none of the trepidation that it may have done in the past. Having said that, it probably takes longer to get from one side of London to the other than it did when the vehicle fuel of choice was hay...
So you'll find a lot of people learning to drive and buying a car because they need to. Granted, many do it because they want to, but I'm sure that number is outweighed by the former. Now look at bikes. From a transport point of view they lose out to cars in several important areas:
They leave you exposed to the elements.
It's harder to carry passengers and luggage (you ever tried taking the family to Sainsbury's for a monthly shop on a Fireblade?).
Due to clothing/safety requirements, it's harder to jump on one and go.
If you do have an accident, it's going to hurt (to varying degrees).
The route to obtaining a licence is overly complicated and potentially more expensive (you could probably pilot a commercial airliner having gone through less paperwork and tests...).
Obviously there are some tangible benefits of using a bike as a mode of transport (cost and congestion-beating to name two), but for your average school leaver these will probably not be the biggest considerations. They don't want to muck about with a helmet, twenty layers of clothing and boots when taking a girl to the cinema on a Friday night. And she'll be less than impressed when you roll up after she's spent an hour picking out her favourite skirt and heels...
So, a car driver's crime (in buying one in the first place) is one of necessity. Given the reasons above, what draws a person to become a biker? Well there are the cost and congestion reasons as already mentioned, but there are, at least, a couple more:
A lot of car drivers don't really understand this, but the wind blast from being exposed, together with the instant response and manoeuvrability of a bike, makes driving a car seem like piloting the QE2.
Coupled with the above really, and the resultant adrenaline. If you build a one tonne car and give it 100bhp it'll get you about just fine (snigger). Now, if you build a bike that weighs about twice your body weight, give it the same amount of power (ergo pretty much any middleweight sports bike), then it will go like the proverbial excrement from a certain digging implement. You want a car that'll hit 60mph from a standing start in under four seconds then you better have £80k is loose change kicking about (I said 'car', by the way, not go-kart - you can't fit a month's worth of Sainsbury's finest frozens into a Caterham either). Want a bike that'll hit that acceleration? Well take your pick, there are probably more than a dozen and not one will cost more than £9k. Speed on a decent budget? You got it.
This one's related to both of the above, well, in fact they're all related to one another. Add the freedom together with the speed, throw in some manoeuvrability and you'll feel like one of the Speeder Bike riders trying to dodge trees in The Return Of The Jedi. The stigma amongst sports bike riders of those who can't get their knee down might seem pathetic (what am I trying to say?), but there is no denying the intense adrenaline rush from having the bike decked out at 70mph with your knee physically dragging along the ground and foot pegs sparking behind you. For extra kudos the bike needs standing up out of the bend, and wheelying. How's a car going to compare with that? Bit of a skid, maybe a wheel spin? Wow. Hold on while I get the tissues...
There is a reason that bikers tend to nod, flash or wave at each other on the road and that reason is camaraderie. It's almost an 'us against them' mentality and spirit. A biker knows the hardships that the other biker's putting up with. He knows about the diesel washed manhole cover, your frostbite ridden fingers and the apparantly blind Fiesta driving mum who is more concerned with changing the CD than not killing you at the next junction. Much of this also comes from exclusitivity. According to the Government there are over 32 million vehicles on the road in the UK, with just over 1 million of them being bikes. In percentage terms that makes it quite an exclusive club, so you'll find that bikers generally stick together and complete strangers have an instant topic of conversation.
Obviously there are bikers who don't go that fast and don't get their knee down, but I tell you something; they acknowledge the freedom. These reasons above (and more) sum up why people ride bikes. Maybe not all of them for everyone, and maybe in different measures but I can guarantee that at least one of them will reach a person's sweet spot as well as appealing to their outlook on life and their perceptions of the world they live in.
Now, I'm running low on milk, where did I put the car keys..?
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